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2 • National Center for Sustainable Transportation <br />Further Reading <br />This policy brief is drawn from the “Impact of <br />Highway Capacity and Induced Travel on Passenger <br />Vehicle Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions” policy <br />brief and technical background memo prepared for <br />the California Air Resources Board (CARB) by Susan <br />Handy (University of California, Davis) and Marlon <br />Boarnet (University of Southern California), which <br />can be found on CARB’s website along with briefs <br />and memos on 22 other land use and transportation <br />strategies that impact vehicle use and GHG emissions. <br />Website link: <br />policies.htm <br />Capacity expansion does not increase employment <br />or other economic activity. Economic development <br />and job creation are often cited as compelling reasons <br />for expanding the capacity of roadways. However, <br />most studies of the impact of capacity expansion on <br />development in a metropolitan region find no net <br />increase in employment or other economic activity, <br />though investments do influence where within a <br />region development occurs.11, 12 <br />Conversely, reductions in roadway capacity tend <br />to produce social and economic benefits without <br />worsening traffic congestion. The removal of <br />elevated freeway segments in San Francisco coupled <br />with improvements to the at-grade Embarcadero <br />and Octavia Boulevards has sparked an on-going <br />revitalization of the surrounding areas while <br />producing a significant drop in traffic.13 Many cities in <br />Europe have adopted the strategy of closing streets <br />The National Center for Sustainable Transportation is a consortium of leading universities committed to <br />advancing an environmentally sustainable transportation system through cutting-edge research, direct <br />policy engagement, and education of our future leaders. <br />Consortium members: University of California, Davis; University of California, Riverside; University of <br />Southern California; California State University, Long Beach; Georgia Institute of Technology; and The <br />University of Vermont <br />Visit us at Follow us on: in <br />1 Noland, R.B. and L.L. Lem. (2002). A review of the evidence for induced travel and changes in transportation and environmental <br />policy in the US and the UK. Transportation Research D, 7, 1-26. <br />2 Noland, R.B. and L.L. Lem. (2002). <br />3 Noland, R.B. and L.L. Lem. (2002). <br />4 Gorham, R. (2009). Demystifying Induced Travel Demand. Sustainable Urban Transport Document #1. Transport Policy Advisory <br />Services on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development, Bonn, Germany. <br />5 Litman, T. (2010). Generated Traffic and Induced Travel: Implications for Transport Planning. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. <br /> <br />6 Hansen, M. and Y. Huang. (1997). Road Supply and Traffic in California Urban Areas. Transportation Research A, 31(3), 205-218. <br /> <br />7 Duranton, G. and M.A. Turner. (2011). The Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from US Cities. American Economic <br />Review, 101, 2616-2652. <br />8 Hansen and Huang. (1997). <br />9 Duranton and Turner. (2011). <br />10 Handy, S. (2005). Smart Growth and the Transportation-Land Use Connection: What Does the Research Tell us? International <br />Regional Science Review, 28(2): 1-22. <br />11 Handy, S. (2005). <br />12 Funderberg, R., H. Nixon, M. Boarnet, and G. Ferguson. (2010). New Highways and Land Use Change: Results From a Quasi- <br />Experimental Research Design. Transportation Research A, 44(2): 76-98. <br />13 Cervero, R., J. Kang, and K. Shively. (2009). From Elevated Freeways to Surface Boulevards: Neighborhood and Housing Price <br />Impacts in San Francisco. Journal of Urbanism, 2(1), 31-50. <br />14 Hajdu, J.C. (1988). Pedestrian Malls in West Germany: Perceptions of their Role and Stages in their Development. Journal of the <br />American Planning Association, 54(3). 325-335. <br />in the central business district to vehicle traffic as <br />an approach to economic revitalization,14 and this <br />strategy is increasingly being adopted in cities the <br />U.S., from New York City to San Francisco.